14/8/08

Οσετία-Γεωργία-Ρωσία

Έχει δίκαιο ο anetos. Ξεχάσαμε χθες να ανοίξουμε τόπο για την εκπομπή με τον πόλεμο στον Καύκασο.
Η εκπομπή μεταδόθηκε εκτάκτως και όπως επισήμανε ο anetos ίσως πράγματι είμασταν υπο την χαλαρωτική επήρεια των διακοπών.
Υπάρχει μια πληθώρα σημαντικών διεθνών αναλύσεων σχετικά με το θέμα αλλά στο βασικό ερώτημα γιατί οι αμερικανοί ενεθάρυναν το γεωργιανό πρόεδρο να αρχίσει επιχειρήσεις και μετά τον εγκατέλειψαν, οι απαντήσεις βασίζονται σε υποθέσεις.
Αναρτούμε στο σημείο αυτό μια ενδιαφέρουσα ανάλυση του statfor. Αξίζει τον κόπο να τη διαβάσετε και γράψτε την άποψή σας.


The Russian invasion of Georgia has not changed the balance of power in Eurasia. It simply announced that the balance of power had already shifted. The United States has been absorbed in its wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as potential conflict with Iran and a destabilizing situation in Pakistan. It has no strategic ground forces in reserve and is in no position to intervene on the Russian periphery. This, as we have argued, has opened a window of opportunity for the Russians to reassert their influence in the former Soviet sphere . Moscow did not have to concern itself with the potential response of the United States or Europe; hence, the invasion did not shift the balance of power. The balance of power had already shifted, and it was up to the Russians when to make this public. They did that Aug. 8.
Let’s begin simply by reviewing the last few days.
On the night of Thursday, Aug. 7, forces of the Republic of Georgia drove across the border of South Ossetia, a secessionist region of Georgia that has functioned as an independent entity since the fall of the Soviet Union. The forces drove on to the capital, Tskhinvali, which is close to the border. Georgian forces got bogged down while trying to take the city. In spite of heavy fighting, they never fully secured the city, nor the rest of South Ossetia.
On the morning of Aug. 8, Russian forces entered South Ossetia, using armored and motorized infantry forces along with air power. South Ossetia was informally aligned with Russia, and Russia acted to prevent the region’s absorption by Georgia. Given the speed with which the Russians responded — within hours of the Georgian attack — the Russians were expecting the Georgian attack and were themselves at their jumping-off points. The counterattack was carefully planned and competently executed, and over the next 48 hours, the Russians succeeded in defeating the main Georgian force and forcing a retreat. By Sunday, Aug. 10, the Russians had consolidated their position in South Ossetia.

(click image to enlarge)

On Monday, the Russians extended their offensive into Georgia proper, attacking on two axes. One was south from South Ossetia to the Georgian city of Gori. The other drive was from Abkhazia, another secessionist region of Georgia aligned with the Russians. This drive was designed to cut the road between the Georgian capital of Tbilisi and its ports. By this point, the Russians had bombed the military airfields at Marneuli and Vaziani and appeared to have disabled radars at the international airport in Tbilisi. These moves brought Russian forces to within 40 miles of the Georgian capital, while making outside reinforcement and resupply of Georgian forces extremely difficult should anyone wish to undertake it.
The Mystery Behind the Georgian Invasion
In this simple chronicle, there is something quite mysterious: Why did the Georgians choose to invade South Ossetia on Thursday night? There had been a great deal of shelling by the South Ossetians of Georgian villages for the previous three nights, but while possibly more intense than usual, artillery exchanges were routine. The Georgians might not have fought well, but they committed fairly substantial forces that must have taken at the very least several days to deploy and supply. Georgia’s move was deliberate.
The United States is Georgia’s closest ally. It maintained about 130 military advisers in Georgia, along with civilian advisers, contractors involved in all aspects of the Georgian government and people doing business in Georgia. It is inconceivable that the Americans were unaware of Georgia’s mobilization and intentions. It is also inconceivable that the Americans were unaware that the Russians had deployed substantial forces on the South Ossetian frontier. U.S. technical intelligence, from satellite imagery and signals intelligence to unmanned aerial vehicles, could not miss the fact that thousands of Russian troops were moving to forward positions. The Russians clearly knew the Georgians were ready to move. How could the United States not be aware of the Russians? Indeed, given the posture of Russian troops, how could intelligence analysts have missed the possibility that t he Russians had laid a trap, hoping for a Georgian invasion to justify its own counterattack?
It is very difficult to imagine that the Georgians launched their attack against U.S. wishes. The Georgians rely on the United States, and they were in no position to defy it. This leaves two possibilities. The first is a massive breakdown in intelligence, in which the United States either was unaware of the existence of Russian forces, or knew of the Russian forces but — along with the Georgians — miscalculated Russia’s intentions. The United States, along with other countries, has viewed Russia through the prism of the 1990s, when the Russian military was in shambles and the Russian government was paralyzed. The United States has not seen Russia make a decisive military move beyond its borders since the Afghan war of the 1970s-1980s. The Russians had systematically avoided such moves for years. The United States had assumed that the Russians would not risk the consequences of an invasion.
If this was the case, then it points to the central reality of this situation: The Russians had changed dramatically, along with the balance of power in the region. They welcomed the opportunity to drive home the new reality, which was that they could invade Georgia and the United States and Europe could not respond. As for risk, they did not view the invasion as risky. Militarily, there was no counter. Economically, Russia is an energy exporter doing quite well — indeed, the Europeans need Russian energy even more than the Russians need to sell it to them. Politically, as we shall see, the Americans needed the Russians more than the Russians needed the Americans. Moscow’s calculus was that this was the moment to strike. The Russians had been building up to it for months, as we have discussed, and they struck.
The Western Encirclement of Russia
To understand Russian thinking, we need to look at two events. The first is the Orange Revolution in Ukraine. From the U.S. and European point of view, the Orange Revolution represented a triumph of democracy and Western influence. From the Russian point of view, as Moscow made clear, the Orange Revolution was a CIA-funded intrusion into the internal affairs of Ukraine, designed to draw Ukraine into NATO and add to the encirclement of Russia. U.S. Presidents George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton had promised the Russians that NATO would not expand into the former Soviet Union empire.
That promise had already been broken in 1998 by NATO’s expansion to Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic — and again in the 2004 expansion, which absorbed not only the rest of the former Soviet satellites in what is now Central Europe, but also the three Baltic states, which had been components of the Soviet Union.
The Russians had tolerated all that, but the discussion of including Ukraine in NATO represented a fundamental threat to Russia’s national security. It would have rendered Russia indefensible and threatened to destabilize the Russian Federation itself. When the United States went so far as to suggest that Georgia be included as well, bringing NATO deeper into the Caucasus, the Russian conclusion — publicly stated — was that the United States in particular intended to encircle and break Russia.
The second and lesser event was the decision by Europe and the United States to back Kosovo’s separation from Serbia. The Russians were friendly with Serbia, but the deeper issue for Russia was this: The principle of Europe since World War II was that, to prevent conflict, national borders would not be changed. If that principle were violated in Kosovo, other border shifts — including demands by various regions for independence from Russia — might follow. The Russians publicly and privately asked that Kosovo not be given formal independence, but instead continue its informal autonomy, which was the same thing in practical terms. Russia’s requests were ignored.
From the Ukrainian experience, the Russians became convinced that the United States was engaged in a plan of strategic encirclement and strangulation of Russia. From the Kosovo experience, they concluded that the United States and Europe were not prepared to consider Russian wishes even in fairly minor affairs. That was the breaking point. If Russian desires could not be accommodated even in a minor matter like this, then clearly Russia and the West were in conflict. For the Russians, as we said, the question was how to respond. Having declined to respond in Kosovo, the Russians decided to respond where they had all the cards: in South Ossetia.
Moscow had two motives, the lesser of which was as a tit-for-tat over Kosovo. If Kosovo could be declared independent under Western sponsorship, then South Ossetia and Abkhazia, the two breakaway regions of Georgia, could be declared independent under Russian sponsorship. Any objections from the United States and Europe would simply confirm their hypocrisy. This was important for internal Russian political reasons, but the second motive was far more important.
Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin once said that the fall of the Soviet Union was a geopolitical disaster. This didn’t mean that he wanted to retain the Soviet state; rather, it meant that the disintegration of the Soviet Union had created a situation in which Russian national security was threatened by Western interests. As an example, consider that during the Cold War, St. Petersburg was about 1,200 miles away from a NATO country. Today it is about 60 miles away from Estonia, a NATO member. The disintegration of the Soviet Union had left Russia surrounded by a group of countries hostile to Russian interests in various degrees and heavily influenced by the United States, Europe and, in some cases, China.
Resurrecting the Russian Sphere
Putin did not want to re-establish the Soviet Union, but he did want to re-establish the Russian sphere of influence in the former Soviet Union region. To accomplish that, he had to do two things. First, he had to re-establish the credibility of the Russian army as a fighting force, at least in the context of its region. Second, he had to establish that Western guarantees, including NATO membership, meant nothing in the face of Russian power. He did not want to confront NATO directly, but he did want to confront and defeat a power that was closely aligned with the United States, had U.S. support, aid and advisers and was widely seen as being under American protection. Georgia was the perfect choice.
By invading Georgia as Russia did (competently if not brilliantly), Putin re-established the credibility of the Russian army. But far more importantly, by doing this Putin revealed an open secret: While the United States is tied down in the Middle East, American guarantees have no value. This lesson is not for American consumption. It is something that, from the Russian point of view, the Ukrainians, the Balts and the Central Asians need to digest. Indeed, it is a lesson Putin wants to transmit to Poland and the Czech Republic as well. The United States wants to place ballistic missile defense installations in those countries, and the Russians want them to understand that allowing this to happen increases their risk, not their security.
The Russians knew the United States would denounce their attack. This actually plays into Russian hands. The more vocal senior leaders are, the greater the contrast with their inaction, and the Russians wanted to drive home the idea that American guarantees are empty talk.
The Russians also know something else that is of vital importance: For the United States, the Middle East is far more important than the Caucasus, and Iran is particularly important. The United States wants the Russians to participate in sanctions against Iran. Even more importantly, they do not want the Russians to sell weapons to Iran, particularly the highly effective S-300 air defense system. Georgia is a marginal issue to the United States; Iran is a central issue. The Russians are in a position to pose serious problems for the United States not only in Iran, but also with weapons sales to other countries, like Syria.
Therefore, the United States has a problem — it either must reorient its strategy away from the Middle East and toward the Caucasus, or it has to seriously limit its response to Georgia to avoid a Russian counter in Iran. Even if the United States had an appetite for another war in Georgia at this time, it would have to calculate the Russian response in Iran — and possibly in Afghanistan (even though Moscow’s interests there are currently aligned with those of Washington).
In other words, the Russians have backed the Americans into a corner. The Europeans, who for the most part lack expeditionary militaries and are dependent upon Russian energy exports, have even fewer options. If nothing else happens, the Russians will have demonstrated that they have resumed their role as a regional power. Russia is not a global power by any means, but a significant regional power with lots of nuclear weapons and an economy that isn’t all too shabby at the moment. It has also compelled every state on the Russian periphery to re-evaluate its position relative to Moscow. As for Georgia, the Russians appear ready to demand the resignation of President Mikhail Saakashvili. Militarily, that is their option. That is all they wanted to demonstrate, and they have demonstrated it.
The war in Georgia, therefore, is Russia’s public return to great power status. This is not something that just happened — it has been unfolding ever since Putin took power, and with growing intensity in the past five years. Part of it has to do with the increase of Russian power, but a great deal of it has to do with the fact that the Middle Eastern wars have left the United States off-balance and short on resources. As we have written, this conflict created a window of opportunity. The Russian goal is to use that window to assert a new reality throughout the region while the Americans are tied down elsewhere and dependent on the Russians. The war was far from a surprise; it has been building for months. But the geopolitical foundations of the war have been building since 1992. Russia has been an empire for centuries. The last 15 years or so were not the new reality, but simply an aberration that would be rectified. And now it is being rectified.

8 σχόλια:

o vasilias tou dasous kai twn ''goim'' είπε...

kala akolou8ite ta gegonota twn polemwn pou prokataskevazoune oi ex8roi tis xoras mas...


an kai parakolou8w tin ekpompi sas panta me endiaferon.. 8a sas parakalousa na mou apantisete...
''gnorizete pos oi evraioi mesa stous naous tous sfazoun an8ropous kai oti emas toys xristianous mas exoun san zwa sklavous tous...
an sas endiaferi o ellinismos kai i ellada mas saw proskalo sto post mou..
me agapi kiriou.
ieromonaxos ioannis vasillef twn genetikwn apovlitwn twn 8eon twn an8rvpwn kai tis kolaseos tous.:)

y.g.

to sxolio afto 8a dimosiefti sto post mou.

to fos, einai i ali8ia.
eseis tin iperetate?
tote kalodexoumenoi:)

o vasilias tou dasous kai twn ''goim'' είπε...

sas evala ligk sto sait mou...
pistevw pos eiste ka8aros ergatis tis ali8ias...
na eiste panta kala kai na sas parakolou8oume panta me iperifamia.

sinexiste to iperoxo ergo sas.

efxaristo dia tin filoksenia sas.

anetos είπε...

Παντελη η εκμπομπη μου φανικε λιγο απροετοιμαστη .Ευγενικο απο ολους ομως τους συμμετεχοντες η ανεκτικοτητα στον "αφελη" αλλα αυθορμητο Γεωργιανο. Τελος το αρθρο στο Statfor ειναι σε πολυ μεγαλο ποσοστο αληθινο ,αναλυτικο,τεκμηριωμενο.
εξαλου στο προηγουμενο σχολιο μου ειπα οτι η περιπτωση του "αδειασματος" της Γεωργιας απο την Αμερικη μου θυμισε την ελλ. Χουντα με την Κυπρο.
Θα μπορουσαν να το κανουν αυτο και με τα Σκοπια αν η Ελλαδα ειχε στρατηγηκο σχεδιασμο (!) που να συμπιπτει με τον αντιστοιχο αμερικανικο ......

taspa είπε...

Παντελή καλησπέρα. Περίμενα πως θα ειχες κάτι χθές το βράδυ.Σε αντιθεση με τον [ανετο] ο νεαρός Γεωργιανός δεν μου εδωσε την εικόνα του αφελή.Ισως δεν τον βοηθουσε η γλώσσα,ισως δεν εχει την κουλτούρα της ανάπτυξης του πολιτικού λόγου,εντύπωση μου εκανε η αναφορά του στη ΘΡΑΚΗ.Τελικά μήπως πρέπει να ξαναδούμε τον ΤΡΙΤΟ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟ????ΜΗΠΩΣ ΕΧΟΥΜΕ ΓΙΝΕΙ ΑΝΟΧΥΡΩΤΗ ΧΩΡΑ???

Lakis Velotris είπε...

Περσο-Ρωσσικών Ρίζων Αποπείρων Μακεδονίας

330 πχ Ο Μεγας Αλέξανδρος περίφραξεν τους πρότους Ρώσσους, τους
Μαγώγ του Περσικού Γώγ, με την Κάσπιαν πύλυν της Καυκάσιας Δερβεντίας.
Οι Σκύθοι, Τούρκοι, και Ρώσσοι είναι ακριτές, βάρβαβρα αποσπάσματα των
Πέρσων, ατμομπανιαρισταί ελαφοβοσκοί, και συνολικός αποτελούν το αιώνιον
πλήγμα όχι μόνον του Ελλινισμού αλλά και του πολιτισμού.

866 Ο Πατριάρχης Φώτιος εναρξεί σχίσμα κατα Πάπα Ρώμης Νικάλαον εξ
αιτίας Βουλγαρικών επιπολαιοτήτων υπερ της Ρώμης. Τουτο σπιούνευσαν οι
ανατολήται Πλατωνικοί Χρυστωμισταί μαύροι εκκλησιαστικοί οι οποιοί
νίκησαν τους Αριστοτελιανούς Καπαδωκιαστάς λευκούς μετα πτώση ικονοκλασμού.

1235 Οι Βούλγαροι αυτοκερύχθησαν Τρίτη Ρώμη εις Τούρνοβον,
θέλοντας να πάρουν Ελλάς και Κωνσταντινούπολιν. Τουτο
μετα υιοθετούν το 1589 οι Ρώσσοι. Προκηρούν τον προτόπορον
κουμουνισμόν της πρότυπης οβσύηνας δια την σλαυοποίησην του κόσμου.
Η αστική νοοτροπία είναι η ρίζα του ελλινικού πολιτισμού. Τιουτοτρόποως
διεκδικώντες του συγγενοκεντρικού χοριάτικου φυσιολατρισμού είναι
σλαβόσποροι οποίοι πρέπει να υπαστούν διωγμό δια την σωτηρία του ελλινισμού.

1342 Οι κουμουνισταί Ζηλοταί ανέλαβαν εξουσίαν εν Θεσσαλονίκην
σφάζωντας την αριστοκρατείαν επι διάταγμαν του Ρωσσικού πράκτοραν
Γρηγωριού Παλαμάν. Ο Παλαμάς έφερε Σλαύους και Τούρκους να
υποστήριξουν τον Καντακουζινόν να διαρρήξη τον αυτοκράτοραν το 1345.
Ετσι οι Τούρκοι απέκτησαν γνώσην Ελληνικής αμύνης. Εσπειραν την
ανατολήτηκην δαιμονίαν του ησυχασμού μετατρέπτοντας τους μοναχούς εις
πράκτορες κουμουνισμού. Ο ησθχαζμός είναι παραίσθηση ταχυπνοήας. Τα
σοσιαλιστικά μέτρα που επίβαλαν εις την κυβέρνιση κατέστρεψαν από μεσα
το Βυζάντιο. Το 1584 Ανατολόφρονοι σφάζουν Πατριάρχη Λούκαρη και
διώκουν Καλβινιστάς Μελανκθόν Βιτεμβούργης οποίοι ήθελαν να μας σώσουν
από τούρκους.

1824 Η Ρωσσια αντιτίθεται είς την δημιουργίαν μοναδικου Ελληνικού
κράτους και δ'υπομνήματος της του Υπουργού Εξωτερικών Νεσσελρόδη
(Γερμανός, οποίος ενικήσεν την θέσην του εναντίον τον Καποδίστριαν),
προτείνει εις τας λοιπάς δυνάμεις την ίδρυσιν τριων κεχωρισμένον
Ελληνικών κρατιδίων, υποτελών ταυτόχρονα εις Τουρκίαν και
Ρωσσίαν, κατα παράδειγμαν Μολδοβλαχίας.

1843 Επι εντολήν του Νεσσελρόδη αποστέλλεται ο πανσλαυιστής
Αρχιμανδρίτης Ουσπένσκης δια να εξεγείρη το Αραβοκατοχημένων Χριστιανικόν
ποίμνιον κατα των Ελληνόφωνων, δηλ Πατρ Ιεροσολύμων και Αντιοχείας και
τελικώς επιτυγχάνει το 1847 την απόσπασιν της Αντιοχείας οποιοι
τωρα διεκδικούν αφελληνοποίησιν διασποράς. Στρέφων πρως ταις
Περσοζορωαστριανών των ρίζων, οι Ρωσσοι ασπάζων τους μονοφυσιταίς ως
παρεξηγημένα θύματα των Ελλήνων, και μηχανεύουν ταχα Αραμαήστα ευαγγέλια
να διαψεύσουν τα Ελληνιστά. Τουτες προσπαθείες επιτυγχάναν αιώνα
αργότερα με το Μιχαήλ Αφλάκη, οποιος ίδρυσεν το κομμαν Βάαθ του
Σαδδάμη και Ασσάδη.

1870 Οι Πανσλαυισταί κατήνεγκον νέον δεινόν πλήγμα κατά του
Οικοθμενικού Πατριαρχείου διά της εκδόσεως Τουρκικού φιρμανίου
δια την ίδρυσιν Αυτοκεφάλων Βουλγαρικών φυλετικών παρασυναγωγών,
ταχα Εξαρχία, κατα διαταγμαν του Ρωσσου πρέσβεως Ιγνάτιευ,
κατάγωγος οποιου τωρα διεκδικεί Καναδική προθυπουργεία. Τωρα
διασρέφουν το συνοδικό ανάθεμα κατα φυλετισμό εναντίον δισποράν.
Διαθεσαν πεντομύρια ρουβλίων το 1872 προς εκσλαυισμόν Αγίου Ορως και
εκδίωξιν Ελλήνων Μοναχών οσων ουδέν ασπάζων τον δαιμονικών περσογεννής
ησυχασμόν.

1878 Η Ρωσσια αναγκάζει την Τουρκίαν να υπογράψη Συνθήκην Αγίου
Στεφάνου (προκύπτρων σημερινών Σλαβο Σκοπιανών) δι ης δημιουργείται
Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία (συμπεριλάμβων Θεσσαλονίκην) έργον εξ ολοκλήρου του
Ιγνάτιευ οστις κατα την υπογραφήν ανεφώνησεν ¨και τώρα εάν οι Ελληνες
το επιθυμούν δύνανται να μεταβούν εις Κωνσταντινούπολιν κολυμβώντες¨.

1923 Ο Πλαστίρας έσφαξεν τους Μακεδονονίκας και επέτρεψεν τους
ανατολίτας Βαφιάδην και Ζαχαριάδην ενάρξουν ενφύλιον πόλεμον. Ο
Μελέτιος Μεταξάκης θέλει να μεταφέρη το Πατριαρχίον εις Μόσχαν κατα
πρόσκλυσην Λένινως και οργανόνουν Σύνδεσμον ταχα πανορθοδόξεως
νεολέας. Το 1937 ο Στάλινας εκτοπίζει 285 χιλ ελληνορώσσους εις
Αρχάγγελον και Σιβηρίαν και τους σφάζει. Οι μαύροι τράγοι αναγκάζουν
ακόμι Μεταξά και χούνταν να ασπασθούν σοσιαλιστικάν μέτραν.

macedonian είπε...

Δυστυχώς για μένα έχω γνωρίσει και Γεωργιανούς(χιλιάδες) και Ρώσους(δεκάδες).Η απίστευτη καφρίλα των πρώτων δε μου επιτρέπει να αμφιβάλλω για το ποιος ευθύνεται για το μακελειό.Σήμερα -μέρα που είναι-προτείνω μια βόλτα στο Βέρμιο ή στο Σέιχ-σου για να δείτε ιδίοις όμμασι πως οι συγκεκριμένοι Τσετσενομόγγολοι σφάζουν και ψήνουν κριάρια και πετάνε τα εντόσθια όπου νά'ναι.Κάφροι!

Black Pearl είπε...

Φωτογραφίες από τις βιαιοπραγίες των Γεωργιανών στρατευμάτων στην Νότια Οσσετία.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/29507379@N06/

Thanassis είπε...

Η πρόσφατη στρατιωτική εμπλοκή μεταξύ Ρωσσίας και Γεωργίας όχι μόνο πείθει ότι οι Η.Π.Α. εξακολουθούν να υπολογίζουν τη στρατιωτική δύναμη της Ρωσσίας και φυσικά τον στρατηγικό ρόλο της στα ευρασιατικά γεωπολιτικά ζητήματα αλλά επιπλέον αναζητούν ευκαιρίες να την δοκιμάζουν για να επιβεβαιώνουν τα όρια της αντοχής της. Μου φαίνεται πως η Γεωργία (και φυσικά εννοούμε τους ιθύνοντες της χώρας αυτής, κι όχι τον απλό λαό) έκανε το σφάλμα να παίξει τυχοδιωκτικά τον δραματικό ρόλο της δολοφονικής χειρός των Η.Π.Α., δοκιμάζοντας τα νεύρα των Ρώσσων (ανεπιτυχώς βέβαια και προς μεγάλη απογοήτευση και εκνευρισμό των σκηνοθετών τους). Πέρα από όσα έγιναν, καμμία ταμπέλα δημοκράτη ή μη δεν προδικάζει την έκβαση του ανταγωνισμού. Η μεγάλη μωρία των δυο Δυνάμεων με κάνει να θυμάμαι την διαμάχη μεταξύ της δημοκρατικής Αθήνας και της ολιγαρχικής Σπάρτης, που είχε ως καταστροφική συνέπεια το οριστικό τέλος του Χρυσού Αιώνα του Περικλή, που μόνο με χρυσά γράμματα μπορεί να γραφτεί στην ιστορία της ανθρωπότητας.

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